Human Immunology

Transcriptional Signatures for Diagnosis of Different Spectra of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection and Characterization of the Immune Response During Latency or Active Disease

by Anne O’Garra, Ph.D.

This consortium will seek to identify immune factors in people with tuberculosis (TB) that determine whether the bacterial infection is latent (inactive) or active and how these immune factors are modified in TB treatment. Researchers also will seek ...
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Role of Endotoxin-Directed Innate Immunity in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease (aGVHD)

by Ofer Levy M.D., Ph.D.

This study will explore the role of a bacterial toxin (endotoxin), which normally resides in the intestine but enters the bloodstream as a consequence of chemo- and radio-therapy in patients with leukemia or lymphoma undergoing bone marrow transplant...
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Interferon and the Toll Hypothesis in Systemic Autoimmune Disease

by Keith Elkon, M.D.

This consortium will explore whether a common process occurs in systemic autoimmune diseases that produces a cyclical pattern of inflammation and attack by the body's immune system against the body's own tissues.Systemic autoimmune diseases include L...
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Role of Human Dendritic Cells in Transplant and Tumor Immunity

by Marco Mielcarek, M.D.

This study will explore whether innate immune dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin of patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for leukemia or lymphoma are responsible for initiating not only positive cancer-fighting actions, but also negative “g...
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Cross Talk between Eosinophils and TH2 Memory Cells Augments Allergic Lung Inflammation

by Ying Sun, M.D., Ph.D.

Consortium researchers will explore the possibility that allergic asthma results from release by immune white blood cells of an inflammatory substance that directs immune T cells to attack lung tissue.Asthma is characterized by infiltration and accum...
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Immunopathogenic Mechanisms in Human Schistosomaisis

by Yuesheng Li, M.D., Ph.D.

This consortium will study immune responses in the tissues of human patients suffering from schistosomiasis, a parasitic infection prevalent in China and many other parts of the world. Improved understanding of the chronic disease process inherent in...
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Characterization and Immunomodulation of B Lymphocyte Responses in Human Spondyloarthritis

by Dominique Baeten, M.D., Ph.D.

This consortium will identify the role that immune B cells, and their interactions with immune T cells, play in the autoimmune arthritic disease, called “spondyloarthritis.” Better understanding may lead to improved treatment for this and other autoi...
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How Does RSV Virus Subvert Immunity, and Can This Process Be Used to Curtail Autoimmunity?

by John Connolly, Ph.D.

This consortium will define how the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is able to subvert the immune system from developing protection against subsequent infections by the virus. Understanding how certain molecules block protective immunity may lead t...
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Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity During Acute HCV Infection

by Sanaa Kamal, M.D., Ph.D.

This consortium proposes to determine whether strong immune responses early in hepatitis C infection correlate with improved outcomes and to examine whether a specific genetic makeup helps to confer protection. The results are anticipated to provide ...
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Selective Dysregulation of an Fcy Receptor on Activated B Cells in SLE

by Betty Diamond, M.D.

Consortium researchers will study whether autoimmune lupus is associated with a genetically determined failure to regulate certain immune cells and whether this condition is more prevalent in African-Americans than other population groups.Lupus is an...
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The Effect of NOD2 Mutation On T Regulatory Cell Function in Patients With Crohn's Disease

by William Faubion, Jr.

Researchers will collaborate to see whether autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease (called Crohn's disease) is related to alterations of a specific gene, which results in impaired regulation of immune T cells that cannot differentiate harmful from har...
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Mechanisms Leading to Rescue of Thymic Function in Immuno-Compromised Individuals

by Rafick-Pierre Sékaly, Ph.D.

This study will determine how the immune system governs the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease in some patients who receive donated bone marrow, and how this disease process might be prevented.Patients with blood-related cancers, such as leukemi...
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The Influence of Genetic Variation in Toll-like Receptors on Susceptibility to Tuberculosis and the Immune Response to BCG Vaccination

by Thomas Hawn, M.D., Ph.D.

This consortium will try to determine how genetic variations in human innate immune responses influence an individual's susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) infection and protection from the current TB vaccine.Even though only about ten percent of peo...
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Mechanisms of Immunologic Unresponsiveness to Hepatitis C Virus Infection

by Andrea Cox, Ph.D.

This research will explore whether responses to Hepatitis C virus ("HepC") infection by a specific type of immune T cell, called "CD8 T" cells, determines whether the virus persists to cause cirrhosis or liver cancer, or whether it is cleared from th...
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FcRH Expression and Biological Potential in B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

by Randall S. Davis, M.D.

This study will determine whether specific markers can differentiate between two types of genetically determined B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). If so, the markers could determine whether a patient has the indolent or aggressive form, so...
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Defining the Basis of the T-cell Immunodeficiency of Schimke Immuno-osseous Dysplasia and Identifying Potential Therapies

by David B. Lewis, M.D.

Collaborating Baylor and Stanford researchers will determine how a particular gene mutation causes a disease characterized by a deficiency of immune T cells. This will enable them to identify specific therapeutic targets for improving T cell function...
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Regulatory T Cells in Human Autoimmunity

by Gerald T. Nepom M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers from several Virginia Mason departments will collaborate to identify the regulatory defect that enables immune T cells to attack the pancreas in autoimmune juvenile diabetes. Additionally, the investigators will devise two methods for tre...
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Studying the Earliest Stages of Autoimmunity to Determine What Goes Wrong

by Alasdair Coles, M.D.

This study will examine the earliest stages of autoimmunity, when the body's immune system first mistakes the body's own tissues as foreign and attacks them. The results may provide new insight into how immune cells malfunction in autoimmunity, using...
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Immune Markers of Premalignant Disease Consortium

by Madhav Dhodapkar, M.D.

Collaborating investigators will test the hypothesis that patients with one of two types of premalignant cancers have immune systems that recognize the premalignancies, and that it is the strength of their immune responses that determines which patie...
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Innate Immune Responses to Aspergillus Mediated by Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) in Patients with Leukemia

by Eric Pamer, M.D

The majority of patients with leukemia receive chemotherapy that profoundly suppresses their immune system. One therapy for leukemia, and also patients with lymphoma and myeloma, is allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Up to 25% of patients ...
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Determining Why Tuberculosis Vaccine Works for Some and Not Others

by Willem A. Hanekom, M.B.Ch.B.

The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine called BCG has been in use for decades but remains perplexing from many perspectives, including a dearth of significant human research. The BCG vaccine raises adaptive immunity against mycobacteria, the antigen i...
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How Do B Cell Antibodies Cause Autoimmune Lupus, and What Are the Effects of Treatment?

by Hedda Wardemann, Ph.D.

Lupus is an autoimmune disease affecting many organs. It occurs when patients' antibodies, produced by immune B cells which are part of the body's second line of immune defense, mistakenly attack the body's own cells. Determining how these B cell ant...
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Targeting of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Against Human Glioma via Dendritic Cells

by Kavita Dhodapkar, M.D.

This laboratory study will examine whether immune system cells of patients with deadly brain tumors, called gliomas, can be enhanced in the laboratory to attack the tumor cells. If so, this could lead to development of a new therapeutic approach to t...
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Innate Immunity and T Cell Priming in Human Tuberculosis

by Patrick Haslett, M.D.

The researchers will explore why only a small subset of people who are exposed to the tuberculosis bacterium develop the disease, while others who are exposed are able to contain the infection without treatment, even though they may not eliminate the...
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Clinical, Immunologic, and Molecular Evaluation of Poxvirus Vaccines Expressing Co-stimulatory Molecules

by Howard L. Kaufman, M.D.

The Columbia researchers will investigate how two experimental vaccine therapies induce both local and broad immune responses in patients who have intractable malignant tumors, within a clinical trial that is funded by other sources.Recent evidence s...
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Interaction Between Environmental and Genetic Factors in Asthma and Atpoy:

by Batsheva Kerem, Ph.D.

This proposed project will elucidate the genetic factors that predispose people to develop asthma and the biochemical pathways associated with the disease. This could lead to a better understanding of eventual means that could be used to prevent the ...
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Immunoglobulin VH Gene Replacement and Generation of Autoreactive Antibodies

by Zhixin (Jason) Zhang, Ph.D.

This study in patients with the autoimmune disease Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) will explore whether the alteration of a gene that is involved in antibody formation is implicated in the disease.Autoimmune diseases like SLE are cases of mistaken...
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Autonomic (CNS) Regulation of Inflammatory Responses in the Clinical Progression of Rheumatoid Arthritis

by Kevin J. Tracey, M.D.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterized by progressive inflammation in the body's joints. This inflammation involves excessive release of immune system substances called cytokines. Recently, the North Shore researchers unexpectedl...
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Novel Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

by Paul J. Utz, M.D.

Autoimmune diseases affect between 3% and 5% of Americans. Connective Tissue Diseases (CTDs) such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are highly heterogeneous inflammatory disorders that target a variety of organs, including kidneys, lungs, heart, ...
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Characterizing the Protective Human Immune Response to Adenovirus

by Cliona Rooney, Ph.D.

Adenoviruses are major causes of morbidity and death in patients who have weakened immune systems. These include people who have had transplants and take medicines to prevent the body's immune system from rejecting the transplanted tissue, and people...
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Seeking Means to Block an Autoimmune Response

by Antony Rosen, M.D.

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakes the body's own cells as "foreign" and attacks them. Systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and autoimmune myositis, all target a specific "auto...
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Understanding Chronic Blood Vessel Inflammation in Arteritis

by Cornelia Weyand, M.D

Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall that can cause irreversible blindness and stroke. Prior research has shown that inflammation occurs after T cells become intolerant to cells in the blood vessel wall, resulting ...
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Innate Immune Responses to Aspergillus Mediated by Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) in Patients with Leukemia - 2002

by Eric G. Pamer, M.D.

Patients undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia are highly vulnerable to fungal infection, and the mortality rate among patients developing invasive fungal infections is exceedingly high. Developing a better understanding of the immune defense against ...
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Exploring the Autoimmune Process in Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

by Virginia Pascual, M.D.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells mistakenly identify the body's own cells as "foreign" and attack them. It produces damage intermittently (an "on-again, off-again" course), affecting multiple organs in...
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Cellular Immune Response to AD-CD154 Gene Therapy

by Thomas J. Kipps, M.D., Ph.D.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy of immune B cells. Under ordinary circumstances these adaptive immune system cells learn to recognize and attack a specific invader. But in CLL, these malignant B cells are rendered unable to detect ...
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Pathogenic T Cell Recruitment into the Human Asthmatic Airway

by Andrew D. Luster, M.D., Ph.D.

Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the lungs, yet we still do not know why this inflammatory response is generated in response to harmless environmental antigens. Asthma is believed to result when a susceptible person has an allergic reaction...
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Identification and Characterization of Human Auto-Reactive B cells in Normal Donors and in Autoimmune Diseases

by Eric Meffre, Ph.D.

Antibodies that misidentify the body's own cells as "foreign" (called "self-reactive antibodies" or "auto antibodies") are a hallmark of autoimmune disease. Certain B cells produce these autoantibodies. Scientists have found that antibodies are gener...
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Monitoring Anti-melanoma Vaccination with Dendritic Cells Using Microarrays

by Anna K. Palucka, M.D., Ph.D.

Novel therapies are needed to improve the management of cancer patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique cells in the body that can recognize invading agents and transmit this information to immune cells to induce a protective immune response. Immun...
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Transplantation: Dendritic Cell Subsets and Regulatory T Cells in Catastrophic Carcinomatosis

by John A. Carucci, M.D., Ph.D.

Researchers from the Medical College of Cornell and the Rockefeller University  will attempt to determine whether, in patients who receive a transplanted organ, certain of their immune cells actively suppress their immune system from responding to sq...
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Immune Cell Dysfunction and Altered Apoptosis in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

by Elizabeth Mellins, M.D.

This study will explore whether a form of autoimmune arthritis that occurs in children is produced when innate immune white blood cells remain activated and resist the normal processes of cell death, while regulatory immune cells fail to intercede. I...
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Endotoxin-Directed Innate Immunity in Patients Undergoing HSCT

by Ofer Levy, M.D., Ph.D.

This study will explore the role of a bacterial toxin (endotoxin), which normally resides in the intestine but enters the bloodstream as a consequence of chemo- and radio-therapy in patients with leukemia or lymphoma undergoing bone marrow transplant...
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Immune Conditioning in Premalignant HPV Disease

by Cornelia Trimble, M.D.

Researchers will explore why immune responses in some women enable progression of the virus that eventually causes cervical cancer, while immune responses in other women effectively clear the virus. They also will assess whether immunotherapy in wome...
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Genome-wide Dissection of Human Immunity to Streptococcus Pneumoniae

by Damien Chaussabel, Ph.D.

Investigators will combine human immune research with genetic and genomics studies to identify immune pathways that are normally effective against pneumococcal bacteria but are deficient in children who develop invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).Whi...
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Novel Genetic and Therapeutic Approaches Focusing on Siglec-8 for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Idiopathic Eosinophilic Disorders

by Bruce S. Bochner, M.D.

Researchers will determine whether asthma and related diseases are associated with mutations in a molecule that ordinarily keeps levels of certain immune white blood cells (called “eosinophils”) low, and instead allows them to accumulate in inflamed ...
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Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell-driven Inflammation of the Skin

by Michel Gilliet, M.D.

Researchers will determine whether a specific antimicrobial chemical, which is secreted when skin is damaged, triggers immune events that lead to development of psoriasis, an autoimmune inflammatory skin disease. Damaged skin cells ordinarily secrete...
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Induction of Active Immunity in Cancer Patients Undergoing Passive Immunotherapy with Antitumor Antibodies

by Raphael Clynes, M.D., Ph.D.

This consortium will determine whether improved clinical outcomes in patients with HER-2 breast cancer is correlated with strengthened immune CD4 T responses produced by monoclonal antibody treatment (Trastuzumab).Anti-tumor antibody treatments have ...
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Macrophage and T-reg Participation in the Adipose Tissue Inflammation of Obese Humans

by Diane Mathis, Ph.D.

Collaborating researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center will investigate the immunological characteristics of the chronic inflammation associated with human weight gain and obesity that may underlie insulin resistance and diabetes.Obesity is accompan...
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Optimizing Human T-Cell Responses to Prevent Chronic Viral Infection

by W. Nicholas Haining, M.B., B.Ch.

Nearly 170 million people around the world are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a virus that can cause liver failure and liver cancer.  In the U.S., chronic infection with HCV is the leading cause for liver transplantation.  There is no cure fo...
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Autoantigens: Identifying T and B Cell Self-Epitopes Implicated in Antibiotic Lyme Arthritis and Rhematoid Arthritis

by Catherine E. Costello, Ph.D.

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis, affecting approximately 1 in 100 people. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne infection in the United States, and arthritis is the most frequent late manifestatio...
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B Cell Tolerance in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

by Hedda Wardemann, Ph.D.

Lupus is an autoimmune disease affecting many organs.  It occurs when patients’ antibodies, produced by immune B cells, which are part of the body’s second line of immune defense, mistakenly attack the body’s own cells.  Determining how these B cell ...
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B23 Nucleophosmin in Hepatocellular Cancer

by Antony Rosen, M.D.

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakes the body’s own cells as “foreign” and attacks them.  Systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and autoimmune myositis, all target a specific “aut...
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Dendritic Cell Function in Inflammatory Diseases of Blood Vessels

by Cornelia Weyand, M.D., Ph.D.

Giant cell arteritis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall that can cause stroke and irreversible blindness.  Prior research has shown that inflammation occurs after T cells become intolerant to cells in the blood vessel wall, resulting...
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Understanding the Basis of Sustained vs Transient CD8 T Cell Responses to Cancer Vaccines

by Timothy N.J. Bullock, Ph.D.

Dr. Bullock will characterize the nature of melanoma patients’ immune T cell responses to experimental therapeutic cancer vaccines in an effort to improve vaccine efficacy. Research has demonstrated that a patient’s immune cells often initially recog...
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Understanding The Interface Between Human Granzymes and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

by Felipe Andrade, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Felipe Andrade’s research is designed to identify the pathways used by immune T cells to attack hepatitis C virus (HCV).Chronic HCV infection can lead to fatal liver cirrhosis or cancer.  About three percent of the world’s population is infected ...
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MicroRNA Regulation of Helper T Cell Function in Asthma

by K. Mark Ansel, Ph.D.

Dr. Ansel will identify processes that immune “helper” T cells use to initiate inflammatory responses in lung tissue of people with asthma, and determine how the information derived may lead to targeted therapies for asthma.Asthma is an inflammatory ...
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Single-Cell Microtools for Profiling Human Immune Responses to HIV

by J. Christopher Love, Ph.D.

Dr. Love will use “single-cell immunology” technology to understand how certain cells help limit HIV infection from progressing to AIDS, a situation that occurs in a small percent of infected individuals who never develop the disease.A small percenta...
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