A non-invasive procedure that applies electrical stimulation to the scalp to increase or decrease neural signaling. The two main types are direct current stimulation (tDCS) and alternating current stimulation (tACS). They are used for therapeutic purposes as well as to study cognitive processing.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): A non-invasive procedure that uses the energy from a strong magnet to stimulate changes in neural processing from above the scalp. It is used as a treatment for depression as well as a research method to investigate cognitive processes.